Indian Portrait of Nadir Shah Afshar

Era: Mughal Empire, India
Date: 18th Century
Materials and Technique: Gouache on paper
Dimensions: 26.4 x 19.3 cm
Kept in British Museum, London, England.
Source: [1]
نقاشی نادر شاه افشار - امپراتوری مغولان هند - موزه بریتانیا - انگلستان
Founder of short-lived Afsharid dynasty. Chieftain of the Turkmen Afshar tribe in north eastern Iran. Nadir Afshar restored the territorial integrity of Iran after the collapse of the Safavid dynasty and the Afghan invasion in 1722 (AH 1135). He served the ineffective Safavid ruler Tahmasp II, adopting the title 'slave of Tahmasp' (Tahmasp Quli). Nadir proclaimed himself Shah in 1736 and abandoned Twelver Shi'ism as the state religion of Iran. He is known for his successful Indian campaign of 1738-1739 which resulted in the Mughals giving up all provinces north and west of the Indus and paying enormous tribute. After a failed assassination attempt on him in 1741, he became cruel and unstable. Nadir was murdered by a group of Persian chiefs in 1746.

In the Battle of Karnal (February 13, 1739), which was a decisive victory for Nader Shah, the Shah's forces defeated the army of Muhammad Shah, the Indian emperor of the Mughal dynasty, in little more than three hours thus paving the way for the Persian sack of Delhi. The battle took place at Karnal, 110 kilometres (68 mi) north of Delhi, India. In this painting, you see the enthroned shah with five male attendants standing. The king seems to have a shaved head like three of attendants.