Mechti Kuli Beg

Date: 17th century
Size: 15.5 x 10.7 cm
Sold at Christie's auction.
Sources: [1], [2]
تصویر مهدی قلی بیگ یکی‌ از فرستادگان صفوی به اروپا
This portrait was created at the court of the Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf II, which is another portrait of Mehdi Qoli Beig who was a member of the the Persian embassy to Europe (1599–1602).
They were dispatched by Shah Abbas I in 1599 to obtain an alliance against the Ottoman Empire. The Persians had then been at war with the Ottoman Empire for more than a century, so they decided to try to obtain European help against the Ottomans. You can also click on this link [3] to see his other portrait, which is very similar.

In a twist, few members of the embassy abjured the Muslim faith and adopted Catholicism instead. Already three members of the Persian retinue had done so in Rome. Then three of the ambassador's secretaries did so while in Spain, including Mehdi Quli Beg, who received Philip III as Godfather, and adopted his name to become Don Philip of Persia!